The climate of India is influenced by various controls, including:
- Latitude: India is located in the tropical and subtropical regions, which means that it experiences high temperatures throughout the year.
- Altitude: The Himalayan mountain range in the north of India and the Western Ghats in the south have a significant impact on the climate of the country. The altitude of these mountain ranges affects the temperature and precipitation patterns in nearby regions.
- Monsoons: The monsoon winds are a major influence on the climate of India, bringing heavy rainfall during the summer months (June-September). The amount and timing of monsoon rainfall can vary significantly from year to year, impacting agriculture and the overall economy.
- Ocean currents: The warm waters of the Indian Ocean have a significant impact on the climate of coastal regions. The southwest monsoon, which brings rain to the Indian subcontinent, is also influenced by the Indian Ocean Dipole, a phenomenon that affects sea surface temperatures in the ocean.
- Topography: The topography of India, including its extensive coastline, plains, plateaus, and mountain ranges, has a significant impact on the climate of different regions. For example, the Thar Desert in Rajasthan is arid due to its location in the rain shadow region of the Aravalli mountain range.
Overall, the climate of India is influenced by a complex interplay of various factors, including latitude, altitude, monsoons, ocean currents, and topography.